Kamis, 09 Juni 2011
Boris Barnet - Ledolom aka The Thaw (1931)
based on story Gorbunov about a struggle of poor peasants against the kulaks *
Kulaks (Russian: кула́к, kulak, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted") were a category of relatively affluent and well-endowed peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union. The word kulak originally referred to independent farmers in the Russian Empire who emerged as a result of the Stolypin reform which began in 1906. The Stolypin reform created a new class of landowners who were allowed to acquire for credit a plot of land from the large estate owners, and the credit (a kind of mortgage loan) was to be repaid from farm work. In 1912, 16% of peasants (up from 11% in 1903) had relatively large endowments of over 8 acres (3.2 hectares) per male family member (a threshold used in statistics to distinguish between middle-class and prosperous farmers, i.e., kulaks). At that time an average farmer's family had 6 to 10 children.
According to Marxism-Leninism, the kulaks were a class enemy of the poorer peasants. From this theory's point of view, poor peasants and farm laborers had to be liberated by the revolution alongside the proletariat (the urban workers). In addition, the planned economy required the collectivization of farms and land to allow industrialization of large-scale agricultural production. The "state of workers and farmers" desired to remove the kulaks as a class, which gave them the chance to integrate in the new classless system with equal rights. However, many resisted these changes and terror was organized against the new collectives with the help of former tsarist military. Many farmers and communists were killed, fields were burned and many machine tractor stations were destroyed. This often caused pronounced hunger and created large problems in agriculture and the economy of the Soviet Union. The view of many kulaks was different, as told by Mikhail Gorbachev whose family were "kulaks." The kulaks stated they had suffered from political repressions under the rule of Joseph Stalin in the 1930s.